", sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1888d (, Verrecchia, Anacleto. [84] He subsequently transcribed and proofread the galleys for almost all of Nietzsche's work. Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in 1865. "German Philosophy in 1907. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in 1888 when he left Sils Maria. He describes primordial unity as the increase of strength, the experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. [238] Thus, he broke with his editor in 1886 because of his opposition to his editor's anti-Semitic stances, and his rupture with Richard Wagner, expressed in The Case of Wagner and Nietzsche contra Wagner, both of which he wrote in 1888, had much to do with Wagner's endorsement of pan-Germanism and anti-Semitism—and also of his rallying to Christianity. Nietzsche".[94]. "[iii], Deussen cited the episode of Cologne's brothel in February 1865 as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women. [69], With Ritschl's support, Nietzsche received a remarkable offer, in 1869, to become a professor of classical philology at the University of Basel in Switzerland. Weber, for example, relied on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. Emilio Carlo Corriero, "Nietzsche's Death of God and Italian Philosophy". 1908. [107], On 6 January 1889, Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck. [52] The family then moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the supra sensory ground and goal of all reality is dead if the supra sensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself. [51] Nietzsche's parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849), a Lutheran pastor and former teacher; and Franziska Nietzsche (née Oehler) (1826–1897), married in 1843, the year before their son's birth. Hence, the title of the aphorism, "On The Thousand And One Goal". However, a recent study (Huang 2019) shows that although it is true that in 1888 Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, the 'burning' story indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 'aphorisms' saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power (this book contains 1067 'aphorisms'), but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as the critique of morality while touching upon the 'feeling of power' only once. [70], Despite his offer coming at a time when he was considering giving up philology for science, he accepted. Pp. [306] Chaim Weizmann was a great admirer of Nietzsche; the first president of Israel sent Nietzsche's books to his wife, adding a comment in a letter that "This was the best and finest thing I can send to you. On 13 May, in Lucerne, when Nietzsche was alone with Salomé, he earnestly proposed marriage to her again, which she rejected. [116][117] Leonard Sax suggested the slow growth of a right-sided retro-orbital meningioma as an explanation of Nietzsche's dementia;[118] Orth and Trimble postulated frontotemporal dementia[119] while other researchers have proposed a hereditary stroke disorder called CADASIL. Jensen, Anthony K., and Helmut Heit, eds. [39] His body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, philology, history, religion, tragedy, culture, and science, and drew early inspiration from figures such as philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer,[20] composer Richard Wagner,[20] and writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. On the basis of it, many commentators[205] regard Nietzsche as an atheist; others (such as Kaufmann) suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. According to a letter he wrote to Peter Gast, this was due to his "attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God".[95]. [151] There is the claim that Nietzsche's homosexuality was widely known in the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, with Nietzsche's friend Paul Deussen claiming that "he was a man who had never touched a woman. [171] He notes that whenever Apollonian culture dominates, the Dionysian lacks the structure to make a coherent art, and when Dionysian dominates, the Apollonian lacks the necessary passion. All this contributed to his subsequent decision to distance himself from Wagner. Please login to your account first; Need help? "[204], The statement "God is dead," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works (notably in The Gay Science), has become one of his best-known remarks. La morte di Dio | Frederick Nietzsche | download | B–OK. Buon ascolto Так говорил Заратустра (с репродукциями картин Л. Хейдиз из цикла "Так говорил Заратустра" )", "Postomodern considerations of Nietzschean perspectivism", "Jung's Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche: A Roadmap for the Uninitiated by Dr. Ritske Rensma", Public Opinions, Private Laziness: The Epistemological Break in Nietzsche, https://web.archive.org/web/20140924114053/http://www.ehumanista.ucsb.edu/eHumanista%20IVITRA/Volume%205/Volum%20Regular/7_Perez.pdf, "In defence of slavery: Nietzsche's Dangerous Thinking", Entry on Nietzsche at the Encyclopædia Britannica, Publications by and about Friedrich Nietzsche, "Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy", Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works and Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate, Lexido: Searchable Database index of Public Domain editions of all Nietzsche's major works, International Music Score Library Project, Prof. Nietzsche and the Crisis in Philosophy, Biographical Archive of Psychiatry (BIAPSY), Newspaper clippings about Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche and the Postmodern Condition (1991), Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Nietzsche&oldid=998418810, German military personnel of the Franco-Prussian War, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with incomplete citations from November 2012, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "My life will recur in exactly identical fashion:" this expresses a totally, "My life may recur in exactly identical fashion:" This second view conditionally asserts. [52] At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources;[55] he also experienced for the first time being away from his family life in a small-town conservative environment. [222] Nietzsche considered it as potentially "horrifying and paralyzing", and said that its burden is the "heaviest weight" imaginable (" das schwerste Gewicht"). "[2][126][65][127] Others do not assign him a national category. [181][182], Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant, Descartes, and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil, Nietzsche attacked the thing in itself and cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies. [208] Furthermore, he emphasized the danger of nihilism and the possibilities it offers, as seen in his statement that "I praise, I do not reproach, [nihilism's] arrival. That year he also met Lou Andreas-Salomé,[87] through Malwida von Meysenbug and Paul Rée. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. 18-26: Journal: Tigor. [58] Perhaps under Ortlepp's influence, he and a student named Richter returned to school drunk and encountered a teacher, resulting in Nietzsche's demotion from first in his class and the end of his status as a prefect.[59]. 1987. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. IRIS è la soluzione IT che facilita la raccolta e la gestione dei dati relativi alle attività e ai prodotti della ricerca. He became the youngest person ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Fornisce a ricercatori, amministratori e valutatori gli strumenti per monitorare i risultati della ricerca, aumentarne la visibilità e allocare in modo efficace le risorse disponibili. "[144] Colli and Montinari, the editors of Nietzsche's assembled letters, gloss Nietzsche's claims as a "mistaken belief" and "without foundation. In 1882, Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science. He pointed out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one person to the next. Academic records from one of the schools attended by Nietzsche noted that he excelled in Christian theology. Nietzsche also met Franz Overbeck, a professor of theology who remained his friend throughout his life. ISBN 13: 9788868262754. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttrieben ("artistic impulses") forms dramatic arts or tragedies. Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses the knowledge that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to act at all. Life turns away from itself as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. [299], By World War I, Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. "I am a pure-blooded Polish nobleman, without a single drop of bad blood, certainly not German blood. Hulme", "Wallace Stevens' Harmonium – Collaborative Essays and Articles – Geneseo Wiki", "Book: Ницше Фридрих Вильгельм. 2002. Moreover, he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche contra Wagner and of the poems that made up his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs. [139], It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. From November 1889 to February 1890, the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. "[260] While Nietzsche never mentions Max Stirner, the similarities in their ideas have prompted a minority of interpreters to suggest a relationship between the two. 1994. Non solo, cioè, Nietzsche opera, nello "Zarathustra", nel senso di un'"anti-teodicea" e spiega la "morte di Dio" attraverso la parabola dell'"uomo folle" che ci scopre "assassini" di Dio, ma esprime con sublime ambivalenza tra dolore ed esaltazione per la morte di Dio anche profonda nostalgia e malinconia. It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides, that tragedy begins its Untergang (literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.). Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Dalla nascita della tragedia all'eterno ritorno dell'uguale, in pochi minuti sarai in grado di apprendere la filosofia di questo autore ostico per certi aspetti. [88] Nietzsche nonetheless was content to join together with Rée and Salomé touring through Switzerland and Italy together, planning their commune. I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. Here Foucault referenced Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred. "[206], One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche called passive nihilism, which he recognized in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. "[142], Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. Pity makes suffering contagious.[198]. He likely suffered from clinical hemiparesis/hemiplegia on the left side of his body by 1899. "[192] Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future).[193]. Nietzsche would ultimately argue the impossibility of an evolutionary explanation of the human aesthetic sense. [252] In 1867 Nietzsche wrote in a letter that he was trying to improve his German style of writing with the help of Lessing, Lichtenberg and Schopenhauer. Let you will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth ... Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss ... what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end. For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during human history from thinking in terms of "good and bad" toward "good and evil. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans (who are "motley"). [160] According to Laurence Lampert, "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism (II. [190] On the other hand, Nietzsche called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future. If possible, download the file in its original format. Allan Megill argues that, while Köhler's claim that Nietzsche was conflicted about his homosexual desire cannot simply be dismissed, "the evidence is very weak," and Köhler may be projecting twentieth-century understandings of sexuality on nineteenth-century notions of friendship. You can write a book review and share your experiences. [323] Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger, who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov, who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy". [40] In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward a complete loss of his mental faculties. For I am such and such a person. Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the town of Röcken (now part of Lützen), near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. '"[225], Nietzsche suggests that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space and that different versions of events that have occurred in the past may take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet". The file will be sent to your email address. [200] He indicated his desire to bring about a new, more naturalistic source of value in the vital impulses of life itself. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavors, as well as their political understanding. [163] In it, he asserted the Schopenhauerian judgment that music is a primary expression of the essence of everything. [297][298] Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. "[77] Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler [de] has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that he was homosexual. [256] Hippolyte Taine influenced Nietzsche's view on Rousseau and Napoleon. [53][better source needed], In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make (Apollonian) order of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) fate, though he dies unfulfilled. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder, all three of whom came from highly respected families. [61] As early as his 1862 essay "Fate and History", Nietzsche had argued that historical research had discredited the central teachings of Christianity,[62] but David Strauss's Life of Jesus also seems to have had a profound effect on the young man. [March 1887] 1921. Thereafter, he saw his work as completed for a time and hoped that soon a readership would develop. To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati, "love of fate". In 1876, Gast transcribed the crabbed, nearly illegible handwriting of Nietzsche's first time with Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. [57] The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, and more "German" writers. It may takes up to 1-5 minutes before you received it. He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. [109] In January 1889, they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols, by that time already printed and bound. Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines and took liberties with the material, the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. Si chiarirà inoltre la concezione nietzscheana della verità, esemplificata dalle note figure della morte di Dio e dell’avvento di Zarathustra per mezzo delle novità astronomiche ottocentesche: la misurazione della velocità della luce e della distanza delle stelle, l’introduzione del termine “anno luce” e l’idea della nascita e della morte delle stelle. [211][212] As such, according to Nietzsche, the drive for conservation appears as the major motivator of human or animal behavior only in exceptions, as the general condition of life is not one of a 'struggle for existence. Nietzsche first proposed the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science, and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, among other places. Brobjer, Thomas. May, J. Rosenberg, Rorty, Richard. [85] Gast was one of the very few friends Nietzsche allowed to criticize him. The overman is the meaning of the earth. Oltre l'abisso. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. After graduation in September 1864,[60] Nietzsche began studying theology and classical philology at the University of Bonn in the hope of becoming a minister. [247], In his Egotism in German Philosophy, Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. 15, 1998, pp. Many of these criticisms rely on psychological diagnoses that expose false consciousness infecting people’s received ideas; for that reason, he is often associated with a group of late modern thinkers (including Marx and Freud) who advanced a “hermeneutics of suspicion" against traditional values. Main L'idea di bene in Tolstoj e Nietzsche. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the 1890s; in 1894–1895 German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. "[81] Nietzsche enjoyed the attention he gave to the beginning of the Bayreuth Festival. Una delle domande che ci si è posti nella storia della critica a Nietzsche è la considerazione su qual è il "vero" Nietzsche ovvero quale fosse il suo reale intento e cosa volesse comunicare nelle sue opere ovvero quanto di ciò che ha lasciato è filtrabile in maniera lucida separandolo dalla parabola discendente della sua malattia mentale. In response, Rohde (then a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. "[149] The acquisition of the infection from a homosexual brothel was confirmed by Sigmund Freud, who cited Otto Binswanger as his source. 105–12 in, Leonard Sax, "What was the cause of Nietzsche's dementia? [334] Paul Ricœur called Nietzsche one of the masters of the "school of suspicion", alongside Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. [150] Nigel Rodgers and Mel Thompson have argued that continuous sickness and headaches hindered Nietzsche from engaging much with women. [253] Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Albert Lange. "[96] He then printed Beyond Good and Evil at his own expense. L'idea di bene in Tolstoj e Nietzsche Lev Sestov. His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits. [63] In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith. [277] Symons went on to compare the ideas of the two thinkers in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, while Yeats tried to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. CINECA IRIS Institutional Research Information System. [131] His birthplace, Röcken, is in the modern German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is a consequence of overcoming hurdles to one's actions and the fulfillment of the will. Utilitarians claim that what moves people is the desire to be happy and accumulate pleasure in their lives. She had been interested in Nietzsche as a friend, but not as a husband. 2014. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. 1947. [83] Nietzsche occasionally returned to Naumburg to visit his family, and, especially during this time, he and his sister had repeated periods of conflict and reconciliation. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August 1900, he had another stroke during the night of 24–25 August and died at about noon on 25 August. Although Nietzsche had previously announced at the end of On the Genealogy of Morality a new work with the title The Will to Power: Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values, he seems to have abandoned this idea and, instead, used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in 1888.[100]. Nietzsche was surreptitiously accompanied to a "call house" from which he clumsily escaped upon seeing "a half dozen apparitions dressed in sequins and veils." He associated slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. The Russian painter Lena Hades created the oil painting cycle Also Sprach Zarathustra dedicated to the book Thus Spoke Zarathustra. "[141] Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized, in one letter claiming, "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago, finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. "[42], Nietzsche's writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. [188], "Slave morality" developed as a reaction to master morality. Lange's descriptions of Kant's anti-materialistic philosophy, the rise of European Materialism, Europe's increased concern with science, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, and the general rebellion against tradition and authority intrigued Nietzsche greatly. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche", "Who knew? [246] Due to his Heraclitean sympathies, Nietzsche was also a vociferous critic of Parmenides, who, in contrast to Heraclitus, viewed the world as a single, unchanging Being. She edited his unpublished writings to fit her German ultranationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. [June 1868] 1921. By rising above mass culture, those persons would produce higher, brighter, and healthier human beings. "Roger Boscovich, Benedict de Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche: The Untold Story. After his death, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche became the curator and editor of her brother's manuscripts. Ediz. While in Genoa, Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. [288] Wallace Stevens[289] was another reader of Nietzsche, and elements of Nietzsche's philosophy were found throughout Stevens's poetry collection Harmonium. Nietzsche also met Richard Wagner for the first time later that year. According to Deussen, Nietzsche "never decided to remain unmarried all his life. Afrikan Spir, a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality and Nietzsche's colleague, the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him.[80]. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study center. [196] Still, Nietzsche saw his philosophy as a counter-movement to nihilism through appreciation of art: Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. One must have the strength of the overman to will the eternal recurrence. Nell'aforisma 125 della Gaia scienza, l'uomo folle annuncia la morte di Dio #nietzsche #uomofolle #gaiascienza #mortedidio #superuomo #oltreuomo … Ezio Di Nucci Barry Hallen Hans Halvorson Jonathan Ichikawa Michelle Kosch Øystein Linnebo JeeLoo Liu Paul Livingston Brandon Look Manolo Martínez Matthew McGrath Michiru Nagatsu Susana Nuccetelli Giuseppe Primiero Jack Alan Reynolds Darrell P. Rowbottom Aleksandra Samonek Constantine Sandis Howard Sankey Jonathan Schaffer Thomas Senor Nietzsche had already met Richard Wagner in Leipzig in 1868 and later Wagner's wife, Cosima. While at Basel, Nietzsche lectured on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. "Nietzsche's Vorfahren" (reprint). [110] Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. [155][156] However, there are also those who stress that, if Nietzsche preferred men—with this preference constituting his psycho-sexual make-up—but could not admit his desires to himself, it meant he acted in conflict with his philosophy.