He owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation and later admitted that Schopenhauer was one of the few thinkers whom he respected, dedicating the essay "Schopenhauer as Educator" in the Untimely Meditations to him.  At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources; he also experienced for the first time being away from his family life in a small-town conservative environment. Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well.  Other scholars disagree that Nietzsche considered the material world to be a form of the will to power: Nietzsche thoroughly criticized metaphysics, and by including the will to power in the material world, he would simply be setting up a new metaphysics.  Nietzsche's writings have also been influential to some advancers of Accelerationist thought through his influence on Deleuze and Guattari. "IDYLLIC HEROISM: NIETZSCHE'S VIEW OF EPICURUS.” Journal of Nietzsche Studies, no.  Consequently, he turned his attention to his studies again, completing them in 1868. In 1879, after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel.  Its cause, in his opinion, was the growth in European nationalism and the endemic "jealousy and hatred" of Jewish success. From November 1889 to February 1890, the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. Nietzsche soon fell into a period of mental anguish, although he continued to write to Rée, stating "We shall see one another from time to time, won't we? Oltre l'abisso. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel. The most accepted source is a New Year's Eve religious service in the 1300s.  Arriving in Leipzig, (Germany) in October, Salomé and Rée separated from Nietzsche after a falling-out between Nietzsche and Salomé, in which Salomé believed that Nietzsche was desperately in love with her. For I am such and such a person. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. "In it, concepts such as the will to power, the eternal return of the same, the overman, gay science, self-overcoming and so on receive rough, unnamed formulations and are linked to specific pre-Platonic, especially Heraclitus, who emerges as a pre-Platonic Nietzsche. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth (Nietzsche later dropped his middle name Wilhelm). Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. He was regarded as one of the finest riders among his fellow recruits, and his officers predicted that he would soon reach the rank of captain. Nietzsche saw slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, its values emerging to improve the self-perception of slaves. Si chiarirà inoltre la concezione nietzscheana della verità, esemplificata dalle note figure della morte di Dio e dell’avvento di Zarathustra per mezzo delle novità astronomiche ottocentesche: la misurazione della velocità della luce e della distanza delle stelle, l’introduzione del termine “anno luce” e l’idea della nascita e della morte delle stelle. 2014.  In this way Zarathustra proclaims his ultimate goal as the journey towards the state of overman. Scientific developments and the increasing secularization of Europe had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years. He also quoted Mahler himself, and adds that he was influenced by Nietzsche's conception and affirmative approach to nature, which Mahler presented in his Third Symphony using Zarathustra's roundelay.  Olaf Stapledon was influenced by the idea of the Übermensch and it is a central theme in his books Odd John and Sirius. Так говорил Заратустра (с репродукциями картин Л. Хейдиз из цикла "Так говорил Заратустра" )", "Postomodern considerations of Nietzschean perspectivism", "Jung's Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche: A Roadmap for the Uninitiated by Dr. Ritske Rensma", Public Opinions, Private Laziness: The Epistemological Break in Nietzsche, https://web.archive.org/web/20140924114053/http://www.ehumanista.ucsb.edu/eHumanista%20IVITRA/Volume%205/Volum%20Regular/7_Perez.pdf, "In defence of slavery: Nietzsche's Dangerous Thinking", Entry on Nietzsche at the Encyclopædia Britannica, Publications by and about Friedrich Nietzsche, "Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy", Nietzsche Source: Digital version of the German critical edition of the complete works and Digital facsimile edition of the entire Nietzsche estate, Lexido: Searchable Database index of Public Domain editions of all Nietzsche's major works, International Music Score Library Project, Prof. Nietzsche and the Crisis in Philosophy, Biographical Archive of Psychiatry (BIAPSY), Newspaper clippings about Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche and the Postmodern Condition (1991), Relationship between religion and science, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friedrich_Nietzsche&oldid=998418810, German military personnel of the Franco-Prussian War, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with incomplete citations from November 2012, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2019, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "My life will recur in exactly identical fashion:" this expresses a totally, "My life may recur in exactly identical fashion:" This second view conditionally asserts. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground. The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism (Schopenhauer's two principles of morals) Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong. 13. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1887 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1888b (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1961 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. "Nietzsches Staatsangehörigkeit als Rechtsfrage. "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner.  Nietzsche's reception and recognition enjoyed their first surge.  He subsequently transcribed and proofread the galleys for almost all of Nietzsche's work. ", Nietzsche, Friedrich. "Unger, Castoriadis, and the Romance of a National Future. I teach you the overman. They partially paralyzed him, leaving him unable to speak or walk. After one semester (and to the anger of his mother), he stopped his theological studies and lost his faith.  Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. ", The statement "God is dead," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works (notably in The Gay Science), has become one of his best-known remarks.  On returning to Basel in 1870, Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and Otto von Bismarck's subsequent policies as an outsider and with a degree of skepticism regarding their genuineness.  A favorite motto of Nietzsche, taken from Pindar, reads: "Become what you are. "If my life were to recur, then it could recur only in identical fashion." Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! , A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale. ", Walter Kaufmann, intr. Una delle domande che ci si è posti nella storia della critica a Nietzsche è la considerazione su qual è il "vero" Nietzsche ovvero quale fosse il suo reale intento e cosa volesse comunicare nelle sue opere ovvero quanto di ciò che ha lasciato è filtrabile in maniera lucida separandolo dalla parabola discendente della sua malattia mentale. 1908. He also found time to work on poems and musical compositions. What is ape to man? He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. Moritz in Switzerland. " Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future)..  His deepening of the romantic-heroic tradition of the nineteenth century, for example, as expressed in the ideal of the "grand striver" appears in the work of thinkers from Cornelius Castoriadis to Roberto Mangabeira Unger. Friedrich Nietzsche, Complete Works Vol. Because his father had worked for the state (as a pastor) the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta (the claim that Nietzsche was admitted on the strength of his academic competence has been debunked: his grades were not near the top of the class). He was only 24 years old and had neither completed his doctorate nor received a teaching certificate ("habilitation"). He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure. That loss of strength in which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case", "Zarathustra's Secret. La particolarità del pensiero di Nietzsche, la sua unicità, ha sempre generato nella critica degli interrogativi. " In later recriminations, Nietzsche would blame on separate occasions the failure in his attempts to woo Salomé on Salomé, Rée, and on the intrigues of his sister (who had written letters to the families of Salomé and Rée to disrupt the plans for the commune).  Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century, most notable being Ahad Ha'am, Hillel Zeitlin, Micha Josef Berdyczewski, A.D. Gordon and Martin Buber, who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law". Weber e Ni e tzsche  As Heidegger pointed out in his lectures on Nietzsche, Nietzsche's first mention of eternal recurrence presents this concept as a hypothetical question rather than stating it as fact. The overman is the meaning of the earth. In constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness. 70–79.  In his later work, he became increasingly preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome cultural and moral mores in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. Pp. Converted file can differ from the original.  Nietzsche called Dostoyevsky "the only psychologist from whom I have anything to learn. His end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in Religion and German; a 2a in Greek and Latin; a 2b in French, History, and Physics; and a "lackluster" 3 in Hebrew and Mathematics. Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter (released in 1941 in The Double Man): "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies ... all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake. He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness, which made prolonged work impossible. Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the town of Röcken (now part of Lützen), near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. In a 29 March 1887 letter to Theodor Fritsch, Nietzsche mocked anti-Semites, Fritsch, Eugen Dühring, Wagner, Ebrard, Wahrmund, and the leading advocate of pan-Germanism, Paul de Lagarde, who would become, along with Wagner and Houston Chamberlain, the main official influences of Nazism. "Nietzsche and the Philology of the Future" (Stanford University Press, 2000). Oltre l'abisso. By rising above mass culture, those persons would produce higher, brighter, and healthier human beings. We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. While the three spent a number of weeks together in Leipzig in October 1882, the following month Rée and Salomé ditched Nietzsche, leaving for Stibbe (today Zdbowo in Poland) without any plans to meet again. " Israel Eldad, the ideological chief of the Stern Gang that fought the British in Palestine in the 1940s, wrote about Nietzsche in his underground newspaper and later translated most of Nietzsche's books into Hebrew.  Nietzsche occasionally returned to Naumburg to visit his family, and, especially during this time, he and his sister had repeated periods of conflict and reconciliation. "La follia è nei singoli qualcosa di raro – ma nei gruppi, nei partiti, nei popoli, nelle epoche è la regola." Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Despite the respective and indisputable differences, the goal is to try to unite the two philosophies in order to reply to the prophetic sentence of Nietzsche about the «death of God», cultivated in various ways by the existentialist culture of the last century One year before the publication of The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche wrote a fragment titled "On Music and Words". Rivista di scienze della comunicazione e di argomentazione giuridica - A. XI (2019) n. 2", Trieste, EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2019, pp. , In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality, Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place. [better source needed], In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg. , It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. " In December, Nietzsche began a correspondence with August Strindberg and thought that, short of an international breakthrough, he would attempt to buy back his older writings from the publisher and have them translated into other European languages. Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. ", Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks and published it posthumously. Nietzsche first proposed the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section 341 of The Gay Science, and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, among other places.  Author Jack London wrote that he was more stimulated by Nietzsche than by any other writer. , Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. Nehamas shows that this interpretation exists totally independently of physics and does not presuppose the truth of cosmology. "Nietzsche's Aesthetic Solution to the Problem of Epigonism in the Nineteenth Century." 19; III. " Nietzsche scholar Joachim Köhler [de] has attempted to explain Nietzsche's life history and philosophy by claiming that he was homosexual.  Germany had not yet been unified into a nation-state, but Nietzsche was born a citizen of Prussia, which was then part of the German Confederation.  To this day, Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. He became the youngest person ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. However, before fulfilling this promise, he slipped too far into illness. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for annulment of his Prussian citizenship. He also acquired the publication rights for his earlier works and over the next year issued second editions of The Birth of Tragedy, Human, All Too Human, Daybreak, and of The Gay Science with new prefaces placing the body of his work in a more coherent perspective. Bobrowicz, Lipsk 1839–1845: herb Radwan (t. 8 s. 27–29)", "Nietzsche and Lou Andreas-Salomé: Chronicle of a Relationship 1882", "Historicizing Nietzsche? " Nietzsche enjoyed the attention he gave to the beginning of the Bayreuth Festival. In Daybreak, Nietzsche began his "Campaign against Morality". După «Nietzsche-Lexicon» editat de Prof. Cristian Niemeyer (2009), cu participarea a 150 de cercetători specialiști în filozofia lui Nietzsche, sora sa, Elisabeth Forster a măsluit masiv și sistematic opera marelui filosof. Language: italian. Nietzsche approached the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world had "become conscious" in him. Schimbările introduse de Elisabeth Forster au fost caracterizate în respectivul lexicon drept „scandaloase și criminale” (Cristian Niemeyer). In 1883, he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. ", Riley, T. A. , Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis, in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. 115 letters 1874–1886 | Correspondences", "The lost 'Aryan utopia' of Nueva Germania", "Nietzsches Briefe. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. " Colli and Montinari, the editors of Nietzsche's assembled letters, gloss Nietzsche's claims as a "mistaken belief" and "without foundation. according to the circumstances of individual perspectives.  This 1887 letter to Fritsch ended by: "And finally, how do you think I feel when the name Zarathustra is mouthed by anti-Semites? , In his Egotism in German Philosophy, Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric, blasphemous, and often drunken poet who was found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Richard Wagner. He turned away from the influence of Schopenhauer, and after he severed his social ties with Wagner, Nietzsche had few remaining friends. He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own conditions without despising themselves.  In Russia, Nietzsche influenced Russian symbolism and figures such as Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Andrei Bely, Vyacheslav Ivanov and Alexander Scriabin incorporated or discussed parts of Nietzsche philosophy in their works. Nietzsche".. Nagsurat hiya hin … "Nietzsche, Decadence, and Regeneration in France, 1891–1895.". ", In a letter of 1887, Nietzsche claimed, "There has never been a philosopher who has been in essence a musician to such an extent as I am," although he also admitted that he "might be a thoroughly unsuccessful musician. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make (Apollonian) order of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) fate, though he dies unfulfilled. The Wagners brought Nietzsche into their most intimate circle—including Franz Liszt, of whom Nietzsche colloquially described: "Liszt or the art of running after women! However, he was deeply disappointed by the Bayreuth Festival of 1876, where the banality of the shows and baseness of the public repelled him. Krell, David Farrell, and Donald L. Bates.  This leads to constant reassessment of rules (i.e., those of philosophy, the scientific method, etc.) Instead, he seemed to have accepted the conclusions of Ruđer Bošković, who explained the qualities of matter as a result of an interplay of forces. Mussolini, Charles de Gaulle and Huey P. Newton read Nietzsche. :195, "Nietzsche" redirects here. Secondarily derivative are lyrical poetry and drama, which represent phenomenal appearances of objects. Whitlock, G. 1996.  Paul Ricœur called Nietzsche one of the masters of the "school of suspicion", alongside Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Likewise, he rejected the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces. Pity makes suffering contagious.. , Nietzsche's philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors. In 1887, Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morality. "Genealogy and Jurisprudence: Nietzsche, Nihilism, and the Social Scientification of Law.". Italiano; English; One of the keys to understanding the relationship between state and anarchy in Nietzsche’s thought is the antagonism between Apollo and Dionysus highlighted by the German philosopher in many passages of his early works, such as the Birth of Tragedy. , In the following few days, Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnzettel ("Madness Letters")—to a number of friends including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt. You can write a book review and share your experiences. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche2001 (, Wahrig-Schmidt, B. In responding most enthusiastically to Also Sprach Zarathustra ('Thus Spoke Zarathustra'), Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary. Maudemarie Clark and Alan Swensen in their edition, Hinden, Michael. In presenting his theory of human behavior, Nietzsche also addressed and attacked concepts from philosophies then popularly embraced, such as Schopenhauer's notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism. Afrikan Spir, a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality and Nietzsche's colleague, the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him..  Many Germans eventually discovered his appeals for greater individualism and personality development in Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but responded to them divergently. A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. Hulme", "Wallace Stevens' Harmonium – Collaborative Essays and Articles – Geneseo Wiki", "Book: Ницше Фридрих Вильгельм. ", Nietzsche, "Die Florentinischer Tractat über Homer und Hesiod", in. According to a letter he wrote to Peter Gast, this was due to his "attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God".. On 3 January 1889, Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder, all three of whom came from highly respected families. The following day, Overbeck received a similar letter and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel. "Nietzsche's Vorfahren" (reprint).  In January 1889, they proceeded with the planned release of Twilight of the Idols, by that time already printed and bound. Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the town of Röcken (now part of Lützen), near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony.  Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism; a genealogical critique of religion and Christian morality and related theory of master–slave morality;[i] the aesthetic affirmation of existence in response to the "death of God" and the profound crisis of nihilism; the notion of Apollonian and Dionysian forces; and a characterization of the human subject as the expression of competing wills, collectively understood as the will to power. Potendo accedere ai documenti conservati nel Nietzsche-Archiv, rielaborarono e pubblicarono leopere nietzscheane in funzione degli ideali antisemiti e nazionalisti che sempre più prendevano piede nella Germania di … In Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person. Fornisce a ricercatori, amministratori e valutatori gli strumenti per monitorare i risultati della ricerca, aumentarne la visibilità e allocare in modo efficace le risorse disponibili. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation, but the return of beings in the same bodies.  The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, and more "German" writers. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche nasce in un villaggio della Prussia meridionale (Sassonia-Anhalt) nei pressi di Lipsia, il 15 ottobre 1844; Dopo la morte del fratello, del padre e della nonna la famiglia si trasferisce in una propria casa, ora "Nietzsche-Haus", un museo e centro studi. ", Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view of modern society and culture. " The name Nietzsche itself is not a Polish name, but an exceptionally common one throughout central Germany, in this and cognate forms (such as Nitsche and Nitzke). Year: 2013. "Nietzsche's Reading and Private Library, 1885–1889". He also began a friendship with Paul Rée who, in 1876, influenced him into dismissing the pessimism in his early writings. Nell'aforisma 125 della Gaia scienza, l'uomo folle annuncia la morte di Dio #nietzsche #uomofolle #gaiascienza #mortedidio #superuomo #oltreuomo … By denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them. " Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized, in one letter claiming, "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago, finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. Nietzsche died in 1900. Huskinson, Lucy. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment. Some have suggested that the eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. Declinazioni italiane della «morte di Dio». During the same year, he encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, to whom he felt an immediate kinship.